10. Pioneering the Surgery : World's First Surgeons
In Rigveda the verses, mention that, a woman warrior called "Vischala" the queen of king Khela, had been fitted with an artificial Iron leg by the Ashwini physicians, when she lost her leg in a war. These physicians were adored for eye transplantation in the next verse.
Indians pioneered surgery ages ago, Sushruta (500 BC) was the World's earliest Surgeon. He learnt the skills of surgery from Dhanvantari and wrote a treatise on surgery and Ayurveda called "Sushruta Samhita" which had stood the test of time and is even now being followed.
We find the mention of advanced level of surgery, the plastic surgery mostly Rhenoplastary in Sushruta Samhita. These surgeries were performed to reconstruct the noses and ears. He performed many eye surgeries. There are many references about Caesarean operations. Indians not only performed surgeries, but also studied the human Anatomy by dissection. Sushruta Samhita, we find many methods of preserving dead bodies for dissection. Sushruta had mentioned about 125 surgical instruments in his treatise.
In Bhoja Prabandha (927 AD), it had been mentioned that king Bhoja had undergone a surgical treatment, for getting a tumor removed from the brain. King had been administered Anesthesia called "Sammohini" while the surgery was being performed.
Gauthama Buddha's physician called Devaka had performed many surgeries. Buddhistics texts mention about them. "Vinaya Pitika" a Buddhistic text reveals that germs in the brain were removed by performing a surgery.