# 22. Genious Of Indian Mathematical Brains

Mathematical knowledge that exists today is a gift from ancient India. 1. Decimal system : Nine numbers and a zero can be combined to form infinite mathematical expressions and measurements. This knowledge is said to be the unique contribution of ancient Indian genius to world's progress. During Vedic times, this decimal system, was very much in vogue in India, Yadur Veda Samhita 17th chapter, 2nd mantra describes the numerical values in a sequence like |
||

A Buddhistic text called "Lalita Vistara" (1st century BC) describes upto 10 raised to 53 and called that numerical value as "Talakshna". Another Jain text (anuyogadwara) describes numbers upto 10 raised to the power of 140. During the ancient periods, Greeks gave the biggest numerical value called myriad, which is equal to 10 raised to the power of 4, i.e. 10000 only. Biggest Roman numericals were 10 raised to 3 i.e. 1000 only. It was called as "milli". The numbers from zero to nine were first adopted by Arabs from India and had spread to Europe. Today we call these numericals as Indo-Arab numericals. 2. Zero Glory : Without India's richest "zero", the whole of mathematical knowledge becomes zero. Indians used zero not only as the mathematical expression but also as philosophical concept. Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and many Indian classical texts had dealt with zero in various ways. Pingala (2nd century BC) in his Vedagana test "Chandas Sastra" (A guide to study Vedic prosody), while explaining Gayatri Chandas mentions zero. 3. Geometry : Geometry, an important branch of mathematics had originated in India. The word Geometry is a Sanskrit word means measuring the earth. Jya in Sanskrit means earth, miti means measurement "jyamiti" or geometry means measuring the earth. Today, what we call Pythagoras Theorem is a mere repetition of what had been said in Baudhaya "SulbaSutras", written five to six hundred years before Pythagoras. 4. Pi value : The value of pi had attracted the attention of every Mathematicean whether Indian or Western, ancient or modern. The pi is constant value of the ratio between the circumstance and diameter in a circle. Great Indian Astronomer Aryabhatta (5th century AD) had calculated the value of Pi as 3.1416, which is accurate upto four decimals. 5. Trignometry : Trignometry is a gift of antient India to the mathematical world. The concepts of sign and cosign had been evolved by Indian Mathematicians. Aryabhatta had tabulated the several values of sign from 00 to 900 in his famous mathematical work Aryabhattiyam. 6. Calculus : What we call today, "Calculus" was called by anciet Indians as "Kalana Ganana Sastra". Ages before Newton had made use of it, Aryabhatta and Bhaskara charya had dealt with his branch of Mathematics in their Astronomical calculations. Bhaskaracharya is his work "Siddhanta Siromani" (4th chapter Graha Ganita) deals with the concept of differentiation and its application by considering the temporal positions of various planets. Aryabhatta had pioneered this method of calculating the temporal positions of various planets and had introduced to the world the knowledge of Calculus. Brahmagupta and Madhava had developed this branch of Mathematics by introducing Integral Calculus. 7. Algebra : This branch of Mathematics is also an Indian invention. During 9th century AD, Arabs adopted it and from them it has spread to the other parts of the world. Indian seers of yore like Apasthambha, Baudhayana and Katsyayana in his Kalpa Sutras had introduced the "unknown" value in their Mathematical expressions. Afterwards, Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya, Madhava and others developed various algebric formulae, equations and functions. Bhaskaracharya calls Algebra as Ayaktha Ganita or Beeja Ganita. He had said that Vyaktha Ganita lead to Ayakthaganitha. In his book Leelavati he deals with vyathaganitha (arithmetic) before dealing with Ayaktha Ganitha. Indian Mathematical genius is evident from seers of Vedic times to Twentieth century Ramanujam. Today, what we call as computer language (Bakus Normal form) is a replication of Panini's grammar rules. |